定义 - The University of Tulsa-十大外围app

定义

The following is a list of terms related to sexual and interpersonal 骚扰ment and violence. 以下一些术语在大学政策、州和联邦法律中可能有不同的定义. Please refer to the definitions provided within those policies and laws for those descriptions.

以下定义取自引用的资料. 定义中的引用试图引用从该来源获得或改编的定义的特定部分. 在最初术语之后的引用意味着整个定义是从该来源获得或改编的. We have attempted to correctly cite from sources taken; however, 如果发现错误, 请十大外围app,以便十大外围app可以适当地将作者的内容. 请参见下面的引用.

国际特赦组织

(from The University of Tulsa’s 酒精 Policy)1: The University strongly encourages students to report instances of sexual violence. TU recognizes that students are often less likely to report incidents of violence, 或怀疑暴力, 当他们自己饮酒时,可能会有违反行为的风险. 请注意,性暴力受害者不会因违反酒精政策而受到制裁. 医疗酒精大赦政策(MAAP)“代表了大学的承诺,在面对与酒精有关的紧急情况时,知情的决策和促进负责任的行为.“在MAAP, 为自己或其他有医疗紧急情况的学生寻求帮助和/或涉嫌性暴力行为的受害者“将不会因违反大学酒精相关政策而提起投诉或受到制裁. 根据本政策寻求帮助的学生,不应只因管有而受到纪律处分, consumption or supplying of 酒精. 学生可能被要求咨询院长或学生助理院长,并可能被要求参加适当的教育项目,这取决于他们参与的情况. 因该政策而参加的任何项目都不应记录在学生的行为记录中. 本政策不应阻止个人承担联邦政府的义务, 状态, 或当地法律, 或大学政策, 实践, 或过程, 这样做是为了避免举报或采取其他可能对任何学生提起刑事诉讼的行动.“另外, “No individual may receive amnesty under this section more than once in a two year period. 学生事务处应保存所有根据本政策提出的协助要求的记录. 因该政策而参加的任何项目都不应记录在学生的行为记录中. 在这种情况下,以前使用过MAAP政策的个人随后卷入了与酒精有关的事件, this incident and any resulting sanctions shall be treated as an alleged second offense.”

Read the full amnesty policy here.

旁观者干预2

旁观者干预是一种旨在让旁观者参与进来的方法, or third party witnesses, 暴力行为发生的情况, 可能发生, or is in the process of occurring. 这些干预措施鼓励旁观者站出来说话,并以使情况变得更好的方式进行干预. By involving third parties, these interventions aim to increase the scope and breadth of violence prevention efforts.3,4

你可能会遇到这样的情况,你认为某人可能是或成为暴力(性暴力)的受害者, 物理, 情感), 骚扰或跟踪. 作为一个旁观者, you have the choice to remain silent or to intervene and take an active stance on ending violence. 通过干预, 这些策略允许个人发出关于十大外围app社区中什么是可接受的和预期的行为的强有力的信息.3,4

Intervention can happen in many ways, 考虑什么对你自己和他人的安全是最好的,这总是很重要的. 干预可以是非常直接的——你以某种方式把自己插入到一个情境中去分散注意力或打断别人. 它可以不那么直接——发短信让你的朋友过来帮你, knocking on an apartment door and walking away, or asking a friend to intervene. 间接干预还包括一些事情,比如打电话十大外围足彩网站app校园保安,让他们代表你介入某一情况.

强迫

“The act of using pressure, 酒精或药物, 或者强迫别人违背自己的意愿与之发生性接触”,包括“不断尝试与已经拒绝的人发生性接触”.” 5,6 Think of sexual coercion as a spectrum or a range. 它可以从某人口头上怂恿你到某人实际上强迫你与他们接触. It can be verbal and emotional, 让你感到压力的陈述, 内疚和羞愧. 你也可以通过一些更微妙的行动而感到被迫. For example, your partner might:

  • Make you feel like you owe them
  • 十大外围足彩网站app你听起来极端或不真诚的赞美,试图让你同意某事
  • Badger you, yell at you or hold you down
  • 十大外围足彩网站app你毒品和酒精来放松你的抑制
  • Play on the fact that you’re in a relationship, 说一些诸如:“性是证明你对我爱的方式”或者“如果我不能从你那里得到性,我会在其他地方得到它。”
  • React negatively (with sadness, 愤怒或怨恨),如果你拒绝或不立即同意某事
  • Continue to pressure you after you say no
  • 让你感到威胁或害怕如果你说“不”会发生什么
  • Try to normalize their sexual expectations: ex. “我需要它,我是一个男人.” 5,7

同意8

Means a person has given voluntary permission to participate in a particular activity. 两厢情愿的性行为意味着参与其中的每个人都积极同意他们所做的事情, 而不被强迫, 强迫, or under the influence of 酒精 and/or drugs. Without this active, verbal agreement, any sexual activity is considered sexual violence/assault. 有几件事需要知道:

  • 是的意思是是的. 同意 is not the absence of a no. It is the presence of a clear, affirmative, expression of interest, desire, and wants. 同意 involves all parties, with each person setting their boundaries or sharing their 欲望. 同意 is respectful, mutual decision-making.
  • 药物和酒精会影响决策和模糊同意. 当涉及毒品和酒精时,不能获得明确的同意. An intoxicated person cannot give consent.
  • 同意 needs to be clear. 同意 is more than not hearing the word “no.伴侣什么都不说和伴侣说“是”是不一样的.” Don’t rely on body language, past sexual interactions, or any other nonverbal cues. Never assume you have consent. Always be sure you have consent by asking.
  • 同意也很有趣. 同意不一定是“破坏情绪”的东西.事实上,明确而热情的同意可以加强性互动. Not only does it allow one to know that their partner is comfortable with the interaction, 它还能让伴侣双方清楚地表达他们想要什么.
  • 同意特定. 仅仅因为某人同意了一套行为和活动并不意味着他同意了其他的性行为. 类似的, 如果伴侣同意过去的性行为, 这不适用于当前或未来的交互. 同意 can initially be given and later be withdrawn, even within a short span of time.

约会暴力9

在恋爱关系中控制,虐待和侵略性的行为. It can happen in straight or LGBTQ relationships. 它可以包括口头、情感、身体或性虐待,或两者结合.

数字滥用7

利用短信和社交网络等技术进行欺凌, 骚扰, stalk or intimidate a partner. 通常这种行为是一种形式的口头或情感上的虐待在网上犯下. 如果你的伴侣:

  • 告诉你在Facebook和其他网站上可以和谁交朋友,不能和谁交朋友.
  • 发送你负, 侮辱 or even threatening emails, Facebook信息, 微博, DMs or other messages online.
  • Uses sites like Facebook, Twitter, foursquare and others to keep constant tabs on you.
  • Puts you down in their status updates.
  • 十大外围足彩网站app你发送不需要的、露点的照片,并要求你回赠一些.
  • Pressures you to send explicit video.
  • Steals or insists to be given your passwords.
  • 经常十大外围足彩网站app你发短信,让你觉得自己离不开手机,因为你担心会受到惩罚.
  • Looks through your phone frequently, checks up on your pictures, texts and outgoing calls.
  • 在Instagram、Tumblr等网站的图片上恶意地标记你.

情感虐待7

感情中的情感虐待是指一方以非身体方式对另一方施加控制. 这包括:

  • 骂你,侮辱你,不断批评你
  • 拒绝信任你,表现出嫉妒或占有欲强
  • Trying to isolate you from family or 朋友
  • 监视你去哪里,十大外围足彩网站app谁打电话,和谁在一起
  • Demanding to know where you are every minute
  • Punishing you by withholding affection
  • 威胁要伤害你,你的孩子,你的家人或你的宠物
  • Humiliating you in any way
  • Blaming you for the abuse
  • 煤气灯
  • 指责你出轨,经常嫉妒你的外部关系
  • 不停地欺骗你,然后把他们的行为归咎于你
  • 从事或威胁从事意在伤害你的行为
  • 寻找其他的性兴趣或活动来证明他们更有吸引力、更有价值等等. 比你
  • Attempting to control your appearance: what you wear, how much/little makeup you wear, etc.
  • 告诉你,你再也找不到更好的人了, 或者你很幸运能和这样的人在一起

煤气灯

一种情感虐待的形式会让受害者质疑自己的感受, 本能, 和理智, which gives the abusive partner a lot of power. Often, this behavior begins gradually. Once an abusive partner has broken down the victim’s ability to trust their own perceptions, 受害者更有可能留在受虐的关系中. 虐待伴侣可能会使用各种各样的煤气灯手法7:

  • 扣缴虐待型伴侣假装不理解或拒绝倾听.g.,“我不想再听到这些了。”或者“你想把我弄糊涂。.”
  • 应对: 施虐者质疑受害者对事件的记忆, even when the victim remembers them accurately, e.g.“你错了——你永远记不住事情。.”
  • 阻塞/转移: the abusive partner changes the subject and/or questions the victim’s thoughts, e.g.“这又是你从[朋友/家人]那里得到的疯狂想法吗??” or “You’re imagining things.”
  • 琐碎的:施虐的伴侣使受害者的需求或感觉看起来不重要.g.“你会因为这样的小事生气的?” or “You’re too sensitive.”
  • 忘记/拒绝:施虐者假装忘记了实际发生的事情,或者否认向受害者做出的承诺, e.g.“我不知道你在说什么,”或“你在瞎编。.”11

根据作家兼精神分析学家罗宾·斯特恩博士的说法.D.在美国,成为煤气灯受害者的迹象包括12:

  • You constantly second-guess yourself.
  • You ask yourself, “Am I too sensitive?,一天多次.
  • You often feel confused and even crazy.
  • You’re always apologizing to your partner.
  • You can’t understand why, with so many apparently good things in your life, you aren’t happier.
  • 你经常为伴侣对朋友和家人的行为找借口.
  • 你发现自己对朋友和家人隐瞒信息,这样你就不用解释或找借口了.
  • 你知道有些事情非常不对劲,但你永远无法把它说出来,甚至对自己也说不清楚.
  • 你开始撒谎,以避免受到打击和现实的扭曲.
  • You have trouble making simple decisions.
  • 你有一种感觉,你曾经是一个非常不同的人——更加自信, 多风趣的, 更放松.
  • You feel hopeless and joyless.
  • You feel as though you can’t do anything right.
  • You wonder if you are a “good enough” partner.

健康的关系13

A healthy relationship involves:

  • 尊重
    • 双方都要为自己的行为和错误承担责任,
    • they can disagree with each other safely, and
    • they value each other’s opinions.
  • 沟通
    • 合作伙伴直接沟通,没有操纵或恐吓,
    • partners listen to each other, actively trying to understand what the other person is saying,
    • decisions are made together, and
    • conflict is dealt with openly.
  • 支持
    • partners support each other’s goals,
    • they celebrate successes, and
    • assist the other(s) during difficulty.
  • 信任和诚实
    • honesty is important and valued,
    • 伴侣之间彼此感到安全和舒适,而且
    • they work consistently with each other.
  • 自治
    • each partner is confident in their own worth,
    • independence and alone time are valued, and
    • 其他伙伴鼓励和支持个人成长.
  • 公平与平等
    • 伴侣要对自己的行为负责,而不是责怪他人,
    • forgiveness is essential,
    • conflict ends in equal and fair compromise, and
    • 伴侣在关系中平等地十大外围足彩网站app予和接受.

健康的性关系包括上述的特征, but also include healthy communication about sex. 这意味着所有的伴侣都可以公开谈论性的界限, 欲望, 喜欢和不喜欢. 这种对话应该发生在任何性行为之前,也应该发生在性行为期间. Healthy sexual activity also includes consent, 合作伙伴尊重界限到位在哪里, 以及尊重, and follow any changes in boundaries, even during the sexual activity. 如果伴侣之间不能讨论性, 这段关系可能没有为性行为做好健康的准备.

使无能力14

布雷特Sokolow, a lawyer and risk management consultant, defines incapacitation in the following way: “In order to consent effectively to sexual activity, you must be able to understand Who, 什么, 当, 在哪里, Why and How with respect to that sexual activity. 任何时候发生性行为时,受害者不了解这六种情况中的任何一种, 无能是一个问题. An awareness of all six must be present. 这是表述法律期望知情同意的另一种方式, 任何时候都不是, consent cannot be effective. 更确切地说,无行为能力的人不能作出有效的同意. They could be stark naked, 要求性, but if they are incapacitated at the time, and that is known or knowable to the accused, 任何发生的性行为都是不当行为, 任何可能表达的事实同意都是无关紧要的.” 使无能力 includes, but is not limited to being drunk or inebriated, and these terms are not always mutually exclusive. Please note that the TU Policy on Sexual Violence, 家庭暴力, 约会暴力, and 跟踪 Pertaining to 学生15 声明,当一个人“由于使用药物而无法十大外围足彩网站app予明确的肯定的同意”时, 酒精, intellectual deficiency or other disability”, 发生的任何性行为都被认为是违反上述政策的. 因此, 一个人不需要丧失行为能力,其性行为就可以被认为是性暴力.

压迫(偏见+制度权力=主义)16

偏见和制度性权力的结合,创造了一种歧视某些群体(通常被称为“目标群体”)而有利于其他群体(通常被称为“主导群体”)的制度。. Examples of these systems are racism, 性别歧视, 异性恋主义, 残疾歧视, 阶级歧视, 对老年人的歧视, 和反犹太主义. These systems enable dominant groups to exert control over target groups by limiting their rights, 自由, and access to basic resources such as health care, 教育, 就业, 和住房.
Four Levels of Oppression/”isms” and Change:

  • Personal: Values, Beliefs, Feelings
  • Interpersonal: Actions, Behaviors, Language
  • Institutional: Rules, 政策, Procedures
  • Cultural: Beauty, Truth, Right

心理虐待17

Psychological abuse refers to acts such as:

  • 降级、羞辱、恐吓和伤害威胁;
  • 强烈的批评, 侮辱, 贬低, 嘲笑, 骂人会让人觉得自己不值得,并让他们处于施虐者的控制之下;
  • Verbal threats of abuse, 伤害, or torture directed at an individual, 这个家庭, 孩子们, 朋友, 同伴动物, 股票的动物, 或财产;
  • Physical and social isolation that separates someone from social support networks; extreme jealously and possessiveness, accusations of infidelity, repeated threats of abandonment, 离婚, or initiating an affair if the individual fails to comply with the abuser’s wishes;
  • 监视行动,不顾一切地开快车吓唬人.

身体虐待7

Physical abuse occurs when a person exerts control over their partner by using 物理 force. 身体虐待可以是一次发生,也可以是反复发生, 可以包括以下任何一种虐待策略:

  • 揪你的头发,打你,扇你,踢你,咬你,掐你
  • Forbidding you from eating or sleeping
  • Damaging your property when they’re angry (throwing objects, punching walls, kicking doors, etc.)
  • 威胁要伤害你,或者用武器伤害你
  • 把你困在家里,不让你离开
  • 阻止你报警或就医
  • 伤害你的孩子们
  • Abandoning you in unfamiliar places
  • 当你和他们在车里时,不顾后果或危险驾驶
  • 强迫你使用药物或酒精(特别是如果你过去有药物滥用问题)

强奸2

Non-consensual sex with another person obtained by force or the inherent threat of force. 强奸包括意外插入,包括阴茎-阴道插入, 嘴对着你的生殖器, mouth on someone else’s genitals, penile-anal, digital-阴道l, 与肛门, object-阴道l, and object-anal penetration.18
强奸最重要的考虑因素之一与同意有关. 强奸是指性行为在未经一方同意的情况下发生,可以包括使用武力或威胁使用武力.19 强奸也可能发生在实质上丧失行为能力因而无法表示同意的人身上. 醉酒或受影响的人在法律上不能表示同意.19

强奸的神话2

强奸神话被定义为对强奸和/或强奸受害者的刻板印象,在某种程度上将强奸归咎于受害者,并原谅强奸犯.20
Examples of 强奸的神话 include21:

  • 谬论:强奸就是性.
    • Truth: 强奸 is more than unwanted sex. 强奸 is an act of violence. Sexual attraction may play a role, but power and control are considered more primary motives.
  • Myth: Men can’t be raped.
    • Truth: 强奸 can happen to anyone. 性别、年龄、种族或社会阶层不能决定谁是强奸或强奸未遂的受害者.
  • 谬论:强奸和性侵犯/暴力通常发生在陌生人之间.
    • Truth: 强奸 can happen between strangers, but it is more common to happen amongst acquaintances or even people who each other. 据估计,超过70%的受害者认识他们的攻击者. 强奸 can occur between people who are married or have been in a relationship for a long time.
  • 谬论:应该劝阻受害者不去想强奸的事. He or she should “forget it”.
    • 真相:被告知一个人“应该”的感觉可能特别有害. 每个幸存者都应该有机会与他们觉得亲近的人或合格的专业人士谈论他们的经历(如果他们愿意的话).

强奸 myths can be particularly 伤害ful to the survivor of the sexual assault/violence. The more a person believes these rape myths, 他们就越有可能将责任归咎于幸存者,而不是唯一负有责任的犯罪者.22 Endorsing these myths is also damaging in that they promote false ideas about rape in our society.

报复15

“报复的行为, 报复和报复都被认为是报复,违反了第九条和大学政策.”2 报复 can occur from the perpetrator/accused, 朋友/peers/family of either party, 同事和上司, 或者其他可能知道该行为的人. 这可以包括, but is not limited to: spreading rumors, 辱骂、欺负, 在线骚扰和虐待, 身体上的伤害, being excluded/ostracized, 被降职或解雇, unjustified grade reductions, and destruction of property. 报复不包括琐碎的怠慢或烦恼. 法律和大学政策禁止对受害者和/或报告性暴力行为的人进行报复. This means that the perpetrator/accused, 大学, 监督者和社区的其他成员被禁止进行报复,这种行为将违反第九条, 均等就业机会法, 和大学的政策.

安全计划23

A safety plan is a personalized, 实用的计划,包括在恋爱关系中保持安全的方法, 打算离开, 或者在你离开之后. 安全计划包括如何应对情绪, tell 朋友 and family about the abuse, 采取法律行动, 和更多的.

性虐待7

Sexually abusive methods of retaining power and control include an abusive partner:

  • Forcing you to dress in a sexual way
  • 用性的方式侮辱你或者用性的名字称呼你
  • 强迫或操纵你发生性行为或进行性行为
  • Holding you down during sex
  • 当你生病、累了或伤害了你之后要求性
  • Hurting you with weapons or objects during sex
  • 违背自己的意愿让别人和你发生性行为
  • Ignoring your feelings regarding sex
  • Forcing you to watch pornography
  • 故意把性传播疾病传十大外围足彩网站app你

Sexual Assault/Sexual Violence2

任何未经双方同意的触碰他人的行为,以满足侵犯者的性需求. 这可以包括 sexual coercion, 性骚扰, and other forms of non-consensual sexual contact. 强奸是最常见的性侵犯/暴力形式之一.
毒品促成的性侵犯可能发生在某人不知情的情况下被十大外围足彩网站app予毒品,这样罪犯就可以利用他们. 它还可以包括一个人自愿服用毒品,而罪犯利用处于丧失行为能力状态的人. 为性侵犯提供便利而使用的药物不仅限于典型的“约会强奸药物”,还可能包括任何会造成丧失行为能力的物质.24

性接触

Any 物理 contact of a sexual nature. 这可以包括任何触摸一个人的生殖器或身体的其他私人区域的人, 任何其他以性方式接触他人身体的行为(例如.g. 捏、挤、拍手臂、腿、头等. 带有隐含或明确的性目的和/或使用性物品或自己的生殖器触摸他人), 插入他人(包括人的嘴), 阴道, 肛门, 或为了性目的/满足而使用其他孔道). Sexual contact can include the use of one’s mouth, 手/数字, 阴茎, 或身体的其他部分,以及任何物体,以性的方式触摸另一个人或为自己, 或者其他人的, 性满足. 性接触可以是两厢情愿的,也可以是非两厢情愿的. 非自愿的性接触被认为是性暴力行为.

性骚扰2

Sexual 骚扰ment can include a number of unwanted sexual advances from another person, including: gender 骚扰ment, 口头性的言论, 口头性请求, non-verbal sexual displays, 诱人的行为, 性贿赂, 可能会升级为性胁迫或性侵犯.25,26 性骚扰在工作场所更常被当作一种担忧来讨论, but it is a concern in various other settings including college campuses and social settings.

跟踪2

一种重复的骚扰或威胁性的不必要的接触模式,导致受害者害怕或担心自己或身边人的安全.27 这可能包括:

  • Unwanted calls, text messages, or voicemails
  • Unwanted emails or contact through social media
  • Unwanted cards, letters, flowers or presents
  • 出现在受害者生活,工作或上学的地方
  • Sneaking into the victim’s home or car

幸存者倡导者

性暴力/家庭暴力幸存者倡导者是专门为暴力幸存者提供支持和宣传的人员. 倡议者可以在SANE考试期间到场帮助幸存者, filing police/university reports, during court proceedings, 和更多的. There are also hotlines available that survivors can call to speak to an advocate for support, 指导, 和验证. 在塔尔萨, 家庭暴力干预服务(DVIS)有一条倡导热线,幸存者可以随时拨打918.7帮助.ME (918.743.5763). DVIS还可以在报告、医疗检查和法庭程序期间提供律师在场. 请十大外围app http://dvis.org/ 的更多信息.

受害者指责28

指责受害者是一种贬低行为,当一项犯罪或事故的受害者被追究对其所犯罪行的全部或部分责任时,就会发生这种行为.29 这种指责可以从法律上以消极的社会回应的形式出现, 医疗, and mental health professionals30以及来自媒体、直系亲属和其他熟人的信息. 一些犯罪受害者比其他人更能得到社会的同情. Often, the responses toward crime victims are based on the misunderstanding of others. This misunderstanding may lead them to believe that the victim deserved what happened to them, 或者受害者可能是那些寻求暴力的自尊心较低的人. 作为一个结果, it can be very difficult for victims to cope when they are blamed for what has happened to them. 与性暴力有关的指责受害者的例子包括:

  • “She was asking for it”
  • “她没有说不”
  • “她不应该出现在那个地方/参加那个派对/深夜在外面等等。.”
  • “She’s just trying to ruin his life”
  • “我不相信她. She just wants attention.”

这些陈述是有问题的,因为它可能使受害者质疑发生在他们身上的事情,不太可能报告暴力和/或寻求支持. 它还催生了一种支持犯罪者的文化,并为性暴力行为提供了显性和隐性的认可.

引用

以上定义取自引用的资料来源和/或改编. 定义中的引用试图引用从该来源获得或改编的定义的特定部分. 在最初术语之后的引用意味着整个定义是从该来源获得或改编的. We have attempted to correctly cite from sources taken; however, 如果发现错误, 请十大外围app,以便十大外围app可以适当地将作者的内容. 请参见下面的引用.

1
The University of Tulsa’s 酒精 Policy (2015). The University of Tulsa. 从检索 http://35ht6t2ynx0p1ztf961h81r1.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Alcohol-Policy-6pg.pdf
2
TU性暴力预防和教育规划委员会, The University of Tulsa Institute of Trauma, 逆境, 《十大外围app》(TITAN)和学生事务办公室(2014年). 氛围的小册子. The University of Tulsa. 从检索 http://orgs.www.yangchunsanyue.com/titan/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Violence-Intvention-booklet_Final_New-logos.pdf
3
麦克马洪,年代., & 班亚德,V. L. (2012). 我什么时候能帮忙?? A Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of Sexual Violence Through 旁观者干预. 创伤、暴力 & 滥用,13 (1),3 - 14. doi: 10.1177/1524838011426015
4
Orchowski L. M.解开,. S., & Gidycz C. A. (2013). 性侵害暴露的社会反应及性侵犯幸存者的适应. 人际暴力,28(10),2005-2023. doi: 10.1177/0886260512471085
5
Struckman-Johnson C.Struckman-Johnson D & 安德森(2003). 性胁迫的策略:当男人和女人不接受拒绝的答案. Journal of Sex 研究, Feb; 40(1): 76-86. P. 76
6
什么 is Sexual 强迫? Loveisrespect 2014. 从检索 http://www.loveisrespect.org/content/what-sexual-coercion/
7
虐待的定义. The National 家庭暴力 Hotline. 从检索 http://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined/#tab-id-2
8
什么 is Healthy Sexuality and 同意?, 2015. National Sexual Violence Resource Center. 从检索 http://www.nsvrc.org/sites/default/files/saam_2015_what-is-healthy-sexuality-and-consent.pdf
9
Bulletins for Teens: 约会暴力. The Naitonal Center for Victims of Crime. 从检索 http://www.victimsofcrime.org/help-for-crime-victims/get-help-bulletins-for-crime-victims/bulletins-for-teens/dating-violence
10
11
12
斯特恩,R. Are you Being Gaslighted? (2009). 今日心理学. 从检索 http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/power-in-relationships/200905/are-you-being-gaslighted
13
健康的关系. 性骚扰 & 强奸预防计划(SHARPP),新罕布什尔大学. http://www.主要Research.edu/sharpp/healthy-relationships
14
Sokolow,布雷特. The Typography of Sexual Misconduct Complaints. 白皮书. 国家高等教育风险管理中心,2005. pp. 10-11. 网络. 从检索 http://ncherm.org/pdfs/2005NC3.pdf
15
Policy on Sexual Violence, 家庭暴力, 约会暴力, and 跟踪 Pertaining to 学生 (2014). The University of Tulsa. 从检索 http://35ht6t2ynx0p1ztf961h81r1.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Sexual-Violence-Domestic-Violence-Dating-Violence-and-Stalking-Pertainin-9-15-14Final.pdf
16
种族权益工具 Glossary. 种族权益工具. 从检索 http://www.racialequitytools.org/glossary
17
American Medical Association. 关于家庭暴力的诊断和治疗指南. Archives of Family Medicine; 1992: 1, 39-47.
18
Fisher B, Cullen F, & 特纳,M. 大学女生的性侵害(NCJ 182369). Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice; 2000.
19
Kilpatrick DG, Edmunds CN, Seymour AK. 强奸 in America: A Report to the Nation. Arlington, VA: National Victim Center; 1992.
20
Bohner G, Reinhard MA, Rutz S, Sturm S, Kerschbaum B, Effler D. 强奸神话作为中和性认知:反受害者态度对男性自我报告的强奸可能性的因果影响的证据. European Journal of Social Psychology; 1998: 28: 257-268.
21
哈姆林J. List of 强奸的神话 The University of Minnesota; 2001. 从检索 http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/jhamlin/3925/myths.html
22
Frese B, Moya M, Meigas J. 强奸的社会知觉:强奸神话接受如何调节情境因素的影响. Journal of Interpersonal Violence; 2004: 19: 143-161.
23
道路安全. The National 家庭暴力 Hotline. 从检索 http://www.thehotline.org/help/path-to-safety/
24
Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Ruggiero K, Conoscenti LM, McCauley J. Drug-facilitated, incapacitated, and forcible rape: A national study (NIJ 219181). 华盛顿特区:U.S. Department of Justice; 2007.
25
格鲁伯我. 个人和环境性骚扰的类型学:20世纪90年代的研究和政策启示. 性别角色. 1992; 26: 447-464.
26
直到F. 性骚扰:一份关于学生性骚扰的报告. Washington, DC: National Advisory Council on Women’s 教育al Programs; 1980.
27
全国亲密伴侣和性暴力调查. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Center for Control and Prevention; 1998. 从检索 http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/nisvs/
28
加拿大犯罪受害者资源中心(2009年). 受害者指责. Retrieved August 2015 from http://crcvc.ca/docs/victim_blaming.pdf
29
“受害者指责.” (2007). Retrieved March 3, 2008 from http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip//vb.html
30
Coatesa L.理查森C., & 韦德,. 5月(2006). Reshaping responses to victims of violent crime. Presented at Cowichan Bay, B.C.、加拿大.