TU paleoanthropologist uncovers ancient humans in Israel --十大外围app

TU paleoanthropologist uncovers ancient humans in Israel

在约旦河谷发现的史前人类儿童脊椎骨讲述了很久以前非洲移民的故事. 大约1.500万年前,这块椎骨是在以色列发现的最早的古人类证据.

四个人站在户外
从左到右:Omri Barzilai, Izzy Marimski (who discovered the site in 1959), 米里亚姆·贝尔梅克和阿隆·巴拉什

一项新的研究, led by researchers from Bar-Ilan University, 十大外围app, Ono Academic College and the Israel Antiquities Authority, 提出了一个1.5 million-year-old human vertebra discovered in Israel’s Jordan Valley. According to the research published Wednesday, Feb. 2、在期刊上 科学报告在美国,古代人类从非洲向欧亚大陆的迁移不是一次性的,而是一波接一波地发生的. 的 first wave reached the Republic of Georgia in the Caucasus 大约1.800万年前. 第二章记载于“乌贝迪亚”(Ubeidiya),位于加利利海(Sea of Galilee)以南的约旦河谷(Jordan Valley),约1章.500万年前.

这项研究由巴伊兰大学阿兹列里医学院的阿隆·巴拉什领导, Chapman Associate Professor of 人类学 米利暗Belmaker 十大外围app的教授, 小野学院的Ella Been教授和以色列文物局的Omry Barzilai教授. 最近, Belmaker和Barzilai在2019年获得国家科学基金会的资助下,恢复了对乌贝迪亚的挖掘工作. 贝尔梅克的研究项目涉及了来自世界各地的科学家,他们试图揭开沉积物的秘密. 这笔赠款为两名理工大学本科生和两名理工大学研究生提供了财政支持, as well as funded the first excavation at the site in over 20 years with Barzilai.

史前的乌贝迪亚遗址 对考古学和进化研究来说意义重大,因为它是少数几个保存着早期人类离开非洲留下的遗迹的地方之一. 该遗址是非洲以外第二古老的考古遗址,在1960年至1999年期间被多次探险发掘. 这些发现包括大量稀有的已灭绝动物骨骼和石制品. Fossil species include sabertoothed tiger, 猛犸象和一头巨大的水牛, alongside animals not found today in Israel, 例如狒狒, 疣猪, 河马, 长颈鹿和美洲虎. 古代人类制造和使用的石头和燧石与在东非遗址发现的东西有相似之处.

aerial view of brown and green landscapeBelmaker领导的新项目使用新的绝对年代测定方法来完善遗址的年代测定,并研究该地区的古生态和古气候. While looking at the fossils from the site, now housed at the Hebrew University’s National Natural 历史 Collections, Belmaker, 来自TU的古人类学家 部门的人类学,碰到了人的椎骨. “This did not look like anything I had seen before,” she said. “It looked human, but I was not sure.” Initially unearthed in 1966, the bone was studied by Barash and Professor Been. 的y identified it as a human lumbar vertebra, the earliest fossil evidence of ancient human remains discovered in Israel, 大约1.500万年前.

According to fossil evidence and DNA research, human evolution began in Africa about 6 million years ago. Approximately 2 million years ago, 古代人类——几乎, but not yet in modern form — began to migrate from Africa and spread throughout Eurasia, a process known as the “Out of Africa.“‘Ubeidiya, located in the Jordan Valley near Kibbutz Beit Zera, is one of the places where there is archaeological evidence for this dispersal.

在文献中,关于迁移是一次性的还是多次发生的争论仍在继续, Barash解释. 的 new find from ‘Ubeidiya sheds light on this question. “由于乌贝迪亚和德马尼西发现的脊椎骨的大小和形状不同, we now have unambiguous evidence of the presence of two distinct dispersal waves,”他说.

“这根脊椎骨保存着‘乌贝迪亚居民’的生物学秘密,”Belmaker评论道. “的 person was maybe six years old, but even as a child this individual was very large – in fact, much larger than modern children of the same estimated age.”

four brown stone tools with a red and white measuring device in the middle“的 stone and flint artifacts from ‘Ubeidiya, 玄武岩制成的手斧, chopping tools and flakes made from flint, are associated with the Early Acheulean culture. 以前, 人们认为来自“乌贝迪亚和德马尼西”的石器工具与不同的文化有关——在“乌贝迪亚和德马尼西”的早期阿舍利文化. 在这项新研究之后, we conclude that different human species produced the two industries,Barzilai说:“.

根据Belmaker, “关于人类从非洲迁徙的主要问题之一是促进人类迁徙的生态环境. Previous theories debated whether early humans preferred an African savanna or new, 更潮湿的林地生境. 十大外围app在德马尼西和乌贝迪亚发现了不同的人类物种,这与十大外围app的发现一致,即这两个地点的气候也不同. ‘Ubeidiya is more humid and compatible with a Mediterranean climate, while Dmanisi is drier with savannah habitat. 这项研究显示了两种物种, each producing a different stone tool culture, is supported by the fact that each population preferred a different environment.”

被添加, “十大外围app进行的分析显示,‘乌贝迪亚’的脊椎骨属于一个6-12岁的年轻人, 就他的年龄来说,谁个子高. Had this child reached adulthood, he would have reached a height of over 180 cm. 这种古人类的体型与在东非发现的其他大型古人类相似,与生活在格鲁吉亚的矮小古人类不同.”

“看来, 然后, that in the period known as the Early Pleistocene, we can identify at least two species of early humans outside of Africa. Each wave of migration was that of different kind of humans –– in appearance and form; technique and tradition of manufacturing stone tools; and ecological niche in which they lived,”Barash.

For Belmaker, researching human evolution is “extremely exciting.” Because excavations at ‘Ubeidiya concluded in 1999, some people thought there was nothing more to discover. “But you never quite know what you’re going to find,” she noted. “我和我的同事的研究表明,不仅在‘破土动工’的新挖掘中,而且在旧收藏品和博物馆的抽屉中也有秘密.”

作为一个古人类学家, Belmaker relies on collaboration with natural scientists in fields such as anatomy, 地质学和生物学. “我感到自豪的是,纽约理工大学让我能够超越自己学科的局限,在十大外围app大学之间创造有意义的合作.”

2022年夏天,贝尔梅克打算返回以色列,检查更多的这些文物. 她的主要目标是更全面地了解环境:“十大外围app知道‘乌贝迪亚是一个湖岸, but we are not sure of the climate. 像今天一样,又热又干吗? 还是更潮湿? 雨的模式是什么? 这些信息说明了人类在这样一个地区生活的能力,以及十大外围app的祖先是如何应对挑战性的气候的? With climate change being such an urgent problem today, 回顾过去可以让十大外围app向祖先学习,得出基于科学的结论,帮助十大外围app应对当前的问题.” She is planning to take graduate and undergraduate students with her.


沉浸在人类历史悠久的历史中,这只是理工大学人类学研究的众多精彩探索之一. 学习更多的今天!